29 Jun Transcatheter Recanalization of Atretic Pulmonary Veins in Infants and Children
Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions, <a href=»https://www.ahajournals.org/toc/circinterventions/15/6″>Volume 15, Issue 6</a>, Page e011351, June 1, 2022.
Background:Pulmonary vein stenosis is a progressive disease associated with a high rate of mortality in children. If left untreated, myofibroblastic proliferation can lead to pulmonary vein atresia (PVA). In our experience, transcatheter recanalization has emerged as a favorable interventional option. We sought to determine the acute success rate of recanalization of atretic pulmonary veins and mid-term outcomes of individual veins after recanalization.Methods:We reviewed all patients with PVA at our institution between 2008 and 2020 diagnosed by either catheterization or cardiac computed tomography. All veins with successful recanalization were reviewed and procedural success rate and patency rate were noted. Competing risk analysis was performed to demonstrate outcomes of individual atretic veins longitudinally.Results:Between 2008 and 2020, our institution diagnosed and treated 131 patients with pulmonary vein stenosis. Of these, 61 patients developed atresia of at least one pulmonary vein. In total, there were 97 atretic pulmonary veins within this group. Successful recanalization was accomplished in 47/97 (48.5%) atretic veins. No atretic pulmonary veins were successfully recanalized before 2012. The majority of veins were recanalized between 2017 and 2020—39/56 (70%). The most common intervention after recanalization was drug-eluting stent placement. At 2-year follow-up 42.6% of recanalized veins (20.6% of all atretic veins) remained patent with a median of 4 reinterventions per person.Conclusions:Transcatheter recanalization of PVA can result in successful reestablishment of flow to affected pulmonary veins in many cases. Drug-eluting stent implantation was the most common intervention performed immediately post-recanalization. Vein patency was maintained in 42.6% of patients at 2-year follow-up from recanalization with appropriate surveillance and reintervention. Overall, only a small portion of atretic pulmonary veins underwent successful recanalization with maintained vessel patency at follow-up. Irrespective of successful recanalization, there was no detectable survival difference between the more recently treated PVA cohort and non-PVA cohort.