29 Jun Time Course of Irreversible Electroporation Lesion Development Through Short- and Long-Term Follow-Up in Pulsed-Field Ablation–Treated Hearts
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, Ahead of Print.
Background:Pulsed-field ablation (PFA) is a tissue-selective, nonthermal cardiac ablation modality. A novel PFA ablation system consisted of a multichannel irreversible electroporation generator system and a multielectrode circular irreversible electroporation catheter has been developed for catheter ablation. To understand the progression and immediate impacts of PFA, this study evaluated the subchronic (7±3 day) and chronic (30±3 day) safety and performance of the novel PFA system when simulating pulmonary vein and superior vena cava isolation in a porcine beating heart model.Methods:Ten swine models were divided into subchronic (n=6) and chronic cohorts (n=4). Lesions were performed within the right and left atrium to conduct right pulmonary veins and superior vena cava isolations, in addition to creating stacked lesions in the left atrium roof and right atrium posterior wall.Results:Acute pulmonary vein and superior vena cava isolation were achieved in 10 out of 10 swine and demonstrated 100% lesion durability in both cohorts, including sustained elimination of electrical activity at the left atrium roof and right atrium posterior wall. Histology demonstrated that all the cardiac sites ablated showed discrete zones of loss of myocardial fibers or smooth muscle cells with preservation of the tissue architecture with resultant fibrocellular replacement, neovascularization, and neocollagen deposition. Mineralization findings were present in association with residual necrotic muscle fibers. Only in 7 days group, areas of mineralization were frequently associated with inflammation. There were no treatment-related changes in other tissues, including complete sparing of the phrenic nerve.Conclusions:Pulsed-field ablation for pulmonary vein and superior vena cava isolation with the novel PFA system was feasible, safe with myocardial-specific ablative effect. Durable lesions were observed at the target areas. with inflammation phenomena mainly documented at 7 days.