29 Jun Incidence and determinants of thrombotic and bleeding complications in patients with glioblastoma
Glioblastoma patients are considered to be at high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding (MB), although reliable incidence estimates are lacking. Moreover, the risk of arterial thromboembolism (ATE) in these patients is largely unknown. Our aim was to assess the cumulative incidence, predictors, and prognostic impact of VTE, ATE, and MB on subsequent complications and mortality.
Cohort study of 967 consecutive patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between 2004–2020 in two hospitals. Patients were followed from 6 months before date of histopathological glioblastoma diagnosis up to 2 years after, or until an outcome of interest (VTE, ATE, and MB) or death occurred, depending on the analysis. Cumulative incidences were estimated with death as competing risk. Cox regression was used to identify predictors and the prognostic impact.
A total of 101 patients were diagnosed with VTE, 50 with ATE, and 126 with MB during a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range 9.0–22). The adjusted 1-year cumulative incidence of VTE was 7.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.9–9.3), of ATE 4.1% (95% CI 3.0–5.6), and of MB 12% (95% CI 9.6–14). Older age, type of surgery, and performance status were predictors of VTE. Incident VTE during follow-up was associated with MB (adjusted HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.5–9.0). MB and VTE were associated with mortality (adjusted HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.1 and 1.3, 95% CI 1.0–1.7, respectively).
We found considerable incidences of VTE and MB in glioblastoma patients, with both complications associated with poorer prognosis. Our observations emphasize the need for prospective studies to determine optimal thromboprophylaxis and VTE treatment strategy in these patients.