05 Jul Deep Lipidomics in Human Plasma: Cardiometabolic Disease Risk and Effect of Dietary Fat Modulation
Circulation, Volume 146, Issue 1, Page 21-35, July 5, 2022.
Background:In blood and tissues, dietary and endogenously generated fatty acids (FAs) occur in free form or as part of complex lipid molecules that collectively represent the lipidome of the respective tissue. We assessed associations of plasma lipids derived from high-resolution lipidomics with incident cardiometabolic diseases and subsequently tested if the identified risk-associated lipids were sensitive to dietary fat modification.Methods:The EPIC Potsdam cohort study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) comprises 27 548 participants recruited within an age range of 35 to 65 years from the general population around Potsdam, Germany. We generated 2 disease-specific case cohorts on the basis of a fixed random subsample (n=1262) and all respective cohort-wide identified incident primary cardiovascular disease (composite of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke; n=551) and type 2 diabetes (n=775) cases. We estimated the associations of baseline plasma concentrations of 282 class-specific FA abundances (calculated from 940 distinct molecular species across 15 lipid classes) with the outcomes in multivariable-adjusted Cox models. We tested the effect of an isoenergetic dietary fat modification on risk-associated lipids in the DIVAS randomized controlled trial (Dietary Intervention and Vascular Function; n=113). Participants consumed either a diet rich in saturated FAs (control), monounsaturated FAs, or a mixture of monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated FAs for 16 weeks.Results:Sixty-nine lipids associated (false discovery rate<0.05) with at least 1 outcome (both, 8; only cardiovascular disease, 49; only type 2 diabetes, 12). In brief, several monoacylglycerols and FA16:0 and FA18:0 in diacylglycerols were associated with both outcomes; cholesteryl esters, free fatty acids, and sphingolipids were largely cardiovascular disease specific; and several (glycero)phospholipids were type 2 diabetes specific. In addition, 19 risk-associated lipids were affected (false discovery rate<0.05) by the diets rich in unsaturated dietary FAs compared with the saturated fat diet (17 in a direction consistent with a potential beneficial effect on long-term cardiometabolic risk). For example, the monounsaturated FA-rich diet decreased diacylglycerol(FA16:0) by 0.4 (95% CI, 0.5–0.3) SD units and increased triacylglycerol(FA22:1) by 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4–0.7) SD units.Conclusions:We identified several lipids associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. A subset was beneficially altered by a dietary fat intervention that supports the substitution of dietary saturated FAs with unsaturated FAs as a potential tool for primary disease prevention.